All About Rice
Eating rice regularly is a natural and delicious way to improve your heart health. It prevents dirt from entering the blood vessels.Rice is our main food. We cannot things our life without rice.Rice is not only to satisfy hunger, but it is also useful for our health. Many of us know about the use of rice powder in beauty treatments, but not many people know about the use of rice water for hair and skin care. Rice water works great in treating various skin diseases, premature aging and other skin problems.Rice water is completely free of chemicals, which makes the skin soft and smooth. Brightens the skin. So let’s see what its benefits are and how to make rice water for bodybuilding.
Name of the diseases are below:
Ufra Disease of Rice (Ditylenchus angustus) is a worm disease.
It lives in soil, diseased tillage and straw.
This worm eats the juice of the young part of the rice plant, as a result, white spots appear at the base of the first leaf, i.e. at the junction of the leaf and the shell. The white spots gradually turn brown and later the spots grow to dry up the entire leaf. As a result, many times the rind cannot come out or the rind is small or shriveled inside.
Integrated Suppression Management:
Burn the affected field after harvesting.
Cultivation of crops other than paddy on that land.Use resistant varieties.Do not give water from affected fields to other fields.Where possible leave the land tilled for 15-20 days after the first rain of the year (worms die when the soil dries).Application of granular herbicide Furadan 3g at 4.5 kg per bigha during cultivation.
Tungro Disease of Rice (virus disease).
The attack of this disease starts at the seedling stage. Infected leaves show light green or light yellow streaks along the longitudinal veins. Gradually, it spreads and the entire leaves turn yellow. Scattered orange-yellow or yellowish short trees are seen on the land. The presence of the vector insect green leafhopper is observed in the field. Affected plants have weak roots and pull up the plant easily.Integrated Suppression Management: Use of rice varieties with disease resistance ie BR-10,11,14,16,20,22 and Bridhan-24,36,37,39,41. As soon as diseased trees are seen, they should be uprooted and burnt. Clearing of undergrowth and other weeds around the field. If 40-50 green leafhoppers are found in the seedbed or in the field per hundred pulls of hand nets, use approved insecticides like – Diazinon 2 ml, Sumithion-2 ml Dimethoate (Rogar) 2 ml, Malathion- 2 ml Metacystox-2.
Bacterial Leaf Streak (BLS) of Rice (Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzaicola) is a bacterial disease.
The disease is usually limited to the leaf blade. First, narrow and light spots appear in the space between the veins. Gradually the spots become larger and take on a brown color. Later, the entire affected rice leaves turn brown.Integrated Suppression Management: Stir burning after harvesting. If kept in water for 15 minutes at a temperature of 54°C, the seeds become free of bacteria. Mix 4-5 grams of cupravit or 2 grams of champignon per liter of water and spray on 5 percent land.
Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) (Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae) is a bacterial disease.
The disease causes two types of symptoms in seedlings and mature trees. In the seedling stage it is called wilting or seedling rot (crisek) and in the mature stage it is called leaf blight. The outer leaves of the seedling turn yellow and slowly dry to a straw color, as a result of which the new leaves also wither and the seedling droops. A foul-smelling pus-like substance oozes out when pressed by hand at the base of the seedling.On older plants, small watermark-like spots appear first on the edges and tips of the leaves. These spots gradually enlarge and move downwards or inwards along the two edges of the leaves, the affected area fades and turns grayish brown in color which appears as scorched or leaf scorched. Integrated Suppression Management: No wounding during planting. Do not cultivate invasive species. Do not overuse urea fertilizer. Top application in 2/3 installments without giving all urea at seedling or bud stage.If the disease occurs, water the land after 7-10 days.If the disease occurs in the seedling stage, the affected seedlings should be removed and transplanted from the neighboring trees, the amount of damage will be reduced.After harvesting the paddy, the land is stirred and the stubble is burnt.Mix 50-100 grams of potash fertilizer in 10 liters of water on the affected land and spray 5 percent of the land in the afternoon.Top application of potash fertilizer 5/6 kg per bigha.Do not apply urea fertilizer immediately after the Kushikaroi storm.Cupravit 4 g Champion 2 g per liter of water for spraying. 1% Boromixture can be used if necessary.
Powdery mildew of rice
This disease is more common in paddy field. In case of this disease, the bark of the leaves turns brown. Stems become soft and rot. If you pull on the tree, the tree will come up and smell like rotten snails. Integrated Suppression Management: If the disease occurs, if the field water is dried, the disease will get better. In the initial stage, the infected paddy bunches are removed and replanted. If necessary, fungicides such as: Copper oxychloride (0.4%) 1 ml/l. Apply by mixing with water.Do not collect seeds from infected fieldsKeep land drainage system.Clean cultivation.Plow the land and dry it and burn it on the ground.
Narrow Brown Leaf Spot Disease (Cercospora oryzae)
The attack of this disease leaves small narrow and vertical brown spots on the leaves. The spots are parallel to the leaf veins. This disease occurs on seed pods and rice seeds. Integrated Suppression Management: Crops are slashed and burned. Collection and sowing of healthy seeds. Treat with Proveba Vitaflo 200 (2.5-3 g/kg seed) before sowing per kg of seed. Use balanced fertilizers. Use resistant varieties.
Grain Spot of Rice (Fungi and Bacteria)
It is a seed borne disease. From black spots to whitish, brown spots and reddish spots are also seen on the grains. Many spots are confined to the outer part of the seed, while some spots penetrate deep inside. This disease is more common if there is heavy storm/rain during flowering. Integrated Suppression Management: Sow disease free seeds. Do not cultivate rice that is susceptible to attack.Preventing the attack of Gandhi beetle on land.Do not use more urea fertilizer on the land.Burning diseased paddy after harvesting.If the attack is high, use fungicides such as Tilt 250EC (0.1%), Bavistin (0.1%).
Seedling Blight Disease of Rice
This disease is caused by fungal attack. Seedlings die as they grow or seedlings become very weak and limp. Discolored spots are seen on the seedlings. Integrated Suppression Management: If this disease occurs, good results can be obtained if the seed bed is submerged in water or flood irrigation is applied. Seed treatment with carbendazim group fungicide such as Bavistin or Noin at the rate of 1 gram per kg seed before sowing. Sow seeds at shallow depth.
Brown Spot Disease (Helminthosporium oryzae)
It is a seed borne disease. The disease attacks leaves, seeds and growing stems. Small oval shaped brown spots appear on the leaves. The spots gradually spread to the leaves. If the attack is more, the seed is also attacked. Integrated Suppression Management: Stalk burning after harvesting. Use healthy seeds. Seed treatment with hot water or seed treatment with Proveba Vitaflo 200 (2.5-3 g/kg seed). Use of resistant varieties. Keep seed bed or land wet all the time.Sufficient amount of urea and potash applied in the land does not increase the disease.
Stem Rot Disease (Sclerotium oryzae)
This disease is usually seen in the field at the last stage of bud growth. Disease germs live in the soil. Pathogens attack the stem by irrigation water. First, a small rectangular black spot appears on the outer opening of the armpit. Later this stain penetrates into the inner shell and stem. As the stem rots, the plant droops and the paddy becomes stunted and malnourished. Integrated Suppression Management:Use resistant varieties. If the disease occurs, dry the soil and water it again. Using less urea and more potash fertilizers in the land. Land tillage and stubble burning on the land after harvesting. If necessary, use fungicides Cupravit (0.4%), Companion (0.2%).
Sheath Rot Disease (Cerocladium oryzae)
This disease is usually seen in a small stage on the leaves of the rice plant. First, there are small brown spots of various sizes. The spots gradually grow together and spread all over the shell. In this condition, if the grain comes out, then the rice is rotten and malnourished. Sometimes the seed may come out half or not at all. Integrated Suppression Management:Use resistant varieties. Less use of urea fertilizers in land. If the disease occurs, dry the water of the land and give irrigation water again after a few days. Application of fungicides as required ie 1 ml Propiconazole (Tilt 250 EC) or Nativo, or Kontaf per liter of water – spraying at a rate of
Sheath Blight Disease (Rhizoctonia solani)
During budding, small circular or oblong gray watermark-like spots appear first and gradually enlarge and spread upwards to cover all the bark and leaves. The center of the spots is brownish in color and the periphery is dark brown in color. In this condition, the shell looks a bit like a scar on the skin of a snake. If more urea fertilizers are applied, the weather is hot and humid and the pathogen is present in the soil, the disease is released.Integrated Suppression Management: Use of resistant varieties namely BR-10,22,23, and BR-rice 29,32,39,41. Burning of field stubble after harvesting. Use of fertilizers in balanced doses and urea applied in 2-3 installments. If the disease occurs, keep the land water dry for 7-10 days and then irrigate again. Seedlings are planted at a distance. (20/20 cm). Application of potash fertilizers (top application if necessary).Use fungicides if necessary. 1 ml Folifur, 1 ml Propiecnazole (Tilt 250 EC) or Kontaf 5 EC or SCOR, 1 g Carbendazim (Bavistin), Nativo 0.4 g Nastar 1 ml, Opal 2.5 ml per liter of water.
False Smut Disease (Ustilaginoidea virens)
It is seed borne. This disease spreads with the help of wind. This disease can be seen from the milk stage of rice till the time of rice ripening. The fungus looks like a greenish-golden ball. This disease is more common in thin and narrow Aman rice. Integrated Suppression Management: Collect seeds from healthy plants and use next season. Use resistant varieties. At the time of seed emergence fungicides are used ie Cupravit (0.4%), Propiconazole (Tilt 250 EC 0.1%), Bavistin (0.1%).